Part of Thermo Fisher Scientific




Z-DNA-binding protein 1

See alternative names Tumor stroma and activated macrophage protein DLM-1,
DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors

Uniprot Function Description

(Microbial infection) In case of herpes simplex virus 1/HHV-1 infection, forms hetero-amyloid structures with HHV-1 protein RIR1/ICP6 which may inhibit ZBP1-mediated necroptosis, thereby preventing host cell death pathway and allowing viral evasion.

Key innate sensor that recognizes and binds Z-RNA structures, which are produced by a number of viruses, such as herpesvirus, orthomyxovirus or flavivirus, and triggers different forms of cell death (PubMed:32200799). Once activated upon Z-RNA-binding, ZBP1 interacts with RIPK3, inducing the complementary pathways of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis (By similarity). Acts as a key activator of necroptosis, a programmed cell death process in response to death-inducing TNF-alpha family members: ZBP1-dependent necroptosis involves RIPK3 stimulation, which phosphorylates and activates MLKL, triggering execution of programmed necrosis (By similarity). In addition to TNF-induced necroptosis, necroptosis can also take place in the nucleus in response to orthomyxoviruses infection: ZBP1 recognizes and binds Z-RNA structures that are produced in infected nuclei by orthomyxoviruses, such as the influenza A virus (IAV), leading to ZBP1 activation, RIPK3 stimulation and subsequent MLKL phosphorylation, triggering disruption of the nuclear envelope and leakage of cellular DNA into the cytosol (PubMed:32200799). ZBP1-dependent cell death in response to IAV infection promotes interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) induction in an NLRP3-inflammasome-independent manner: IL1A expression is required for the optimal interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) production, and together, these cytokines promote infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils to the lung, leading to the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (By similarity). In some cell types, also able to restrict viral replication by promoting cell death-independent responses (By similarity). In response to Zika virus infection in neurons, promotes a cell death-independent pathway that restricts viral replication: together with RIPK3, promotes a death-independent transcriptional program that modifies the cellular metabolism via up-regulation expression of the enzyme ACOD1/IRG1 and production of the metabolite itaconate (By similarity). Itaconate inhibits the activity of succinate dehydrogenase, generating a metabolic state in neurons that suppresses replication of viral genomes (By similarity).

Sample type

Human EDTA plasma and serum are the recommended sample types. Human citrate plasma and heparin plasma are also accepted. For other samples types e.g cerebrospinal fluid, (CSF), tissue or cell lysates please we recommend Olink Target 96 panels. Please note that protein expression levels are expected to vary in different sample types and certain assays may be affected by interfering substances such as hemolysate.


Precision (repeatability) is calculated from linearized NPX values over LOD.

Within run precision Coefficient of Variation (CV)
Between run precision Coefficient of Variation (CV)

Analytical measuring range

The technical data reported below refers to the measured value in the in vitro validation assays run using known concentrations of recombinant antigen. Please note that these figures are for reference only and CANNOT be used to convert NPX values to absolute concentrations for proteins measured in plasma or serum samples.

LOD (pg/mL)
LLOQ (pg/mL)
ULOQ (pg/mL)
Hook (pg/mL)
Range (logs)

Dilution factor

For optimal assay readout, Olink Explore is run using different dilutions of the original samples (undiluted, 1:10, 1:100 or 1:1000). The dilution factor for this assay is noted below and should be taken into account when estimating the appropriate addressable biological concentration of the protein based on the in vitro validation data.

Dilution factor

Sensitivity plot

The calibrator curve shown below visualizes the analytical measuring range data based on in vitro measurement of recombinant antigen. Please note that this is shown for reference only and CANNOT be used to convert NPX values to absolute concentrations for proteins measured in plasma or serum samples. The vertical dotted lines represent LLOQ and ULOQ respectively, and the horizontal line indicates the LOD.


Sample distribution plot

The plot below shows the levels of protein measured in a number of commercial plasma samples. Healthy subjects are shown in blue and samples obtained from patients with a range of diseases are shown in red. The latter include inflammatory, cardiovascular, autoimmune & neurological diseases, as well as cancer. The data is shown to give a general idea of the sort of data range to expect, but cannot cover all potential levels that may be seen in clinical samples.

1614121086420−2NPXControl SamplesDisease Samples