Part of Thermo Fisher Scientific




Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2

See alternative names PDZ domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1,
Neural RAP guanine nucleotide exchange protein,
Ras/Rap1-associating GEF-1,
Cyclic nucleotide ras GEF

Uniprot Function Description

Functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which activates Rap and Ras family of small GTPases by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP in a cAMP-dependent manner. Serves as a link between cell surface receptors and Rap/Ras GTPases in intracellular signaling cascades. Acts also as an effector for Rap1 by direct association with Rap1-GTP thereby leading to the amplification of Rap1-mediated signaling. Shows weak activity on HRAS. It is controversial whether RAPGEF2 binds cAMP and cGMP (PubMed:23800469, PubMed:10801446) or not (PubMed:10608844, PubMed:10548487, PubMed:11359771). Its binding to ligand-activated beta-1 adrenergic receptor ADRB1 leads to the Ras activation through the G(s)-alpha signaling pathway. Involved in the cAMP-induced Ras and Erk1/2 signaling pathway that leads to sustained inhibition of long term melanogenesis by reducing dendrite extension and melanin synthesis. Provides also inhibitory signals for cell proliferation of melanoma cells and promotes their apoptosis in a cAMP-independent nanner. Regulates cAMP-induced neuritogenesis by mediating the Rap1/B-Raf/ERK signaling through a pathway that is independent on both PKA and RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4. Involved in neuron migration and in the formation of the major forebrain fiber connections forming the corpus callosum, the anterior commissure and the hippocampal commissure during brain development. Involved in neuronal growth factor (NGF)-induced sustained activation of Rap1 at late endosomes and in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced axon outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. Plays a role in the regulation of embryonic blood vessel formation and in the establishment of basal junction integrity and endothelial barrier function. May be involved in the regulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR and cadherin CDH5 expression at allantois endothelial cell-cell junctions.

Sample type

Human EDTA plasma and serum are the recommended sample types. Human citrate plasma and heparin plasma are also accepted. For other samples types e.g cerebrospinal fluid, (CSF), tissue or cell lysates please we recommend Olink Target 96 panels. Please note that protein expression levels are expected to vary in different sample types and certain assays may be affected by interfering substances such as hemolysate.


Precision (repeatability) is calculated from linearized NPX values over LOD.

Within run precision Coefficient of Variation (CV)
Between run precision Coefficient of Variation (CV)

Dilution factor

For optimal assay readout, Olink Explore is run using different dilutions of the original samples (undiluted, 1:10, 1:100 or 1:1000). The dilution factor for this assay is noted below and should be taken into account when estimating the appropriate addressable biological concentration of the protein based on the in vitro validation data.

Dilution factor

Sample distribution plot

The plot below shows the levels of protein measured in a number of commercial plasma samples. Healthy subjects are shown in blue and samples obtained from patients with a range of diseases are shown in red. The latter include inflammatory, cardiovascular, autoimmune & neurological diseases, as well as cancer. The data is shown to give a general idea of the sort of data range to expect, but cannot cover all potential levels that may be seen in clinical samples.

181614121086420−2NPXControl SamplesDisease Samples